Liesl Wenzke Hartmann, MA, CCC-SLP and Jordan Sadler, MS, CCC-SLP, are experts in social communication and practicing speech language pathologists. Here, they describe the curriculum they developed to inform the teaching approach of Flummox and Friends.
The Flummox and Friends Tune in, Connect, Have fun curriculum is based on years of clinical practice and research¹. It's based on the foundational developmental milestones that are vital for children to complete in order to be successful in maintaining fulfilling relationships with others.
Each episode focuses on one or more of the goals within the Tune in, Connect, Have fun levels. The program and associated resources for parents and educators help adults learn along with the child and develop a shared understanding as well as a shared vocabulary for the dynamics in social situations.
Social interaction starts with basic awareness of ourselves, of others, and the environment. The first set of goals relate to tuning into oneself (self-awareness), tuning into others (perspective taking and joint attention), and being able to assess what’s going on – the social context - in the moment.
As we learn how to balance incoming information while staying calm and regulated, we're able to participate in interactions that "flow" easily back and forth flow between people.
- Observe your surroundings to learn what’s expected in a situation by observing others and sharing attention with them.
- Be aware of your own body, voice, and energy level relative to a group.
- Understand that every situation has expected and unexpected behaviors.
- Join in to group activities by being present with your body and your thoughts.
- Identify your own emotional state and mood. Use levels or “zones” to understand the relative states of emotions and moods.
- Recognize others’ emotions based on context: facial expressions, tone of voice, and the situation.
- Notice your body’s reactions to stress and different kinds of sensory input.
- Recognize that others have different thoughts and feelings.
- Show the other person you are listening with your eyes, your words and ideas, and your body.
- Participate in reciprocal turn taking by knowing when to take a turn and what's expected in the moment.
As we "tune in" to ourselves, others and the environment, we can make many more connections. When we can make more connections in our thinking, we become better social problem solvers. This leads to a better ability to put our ideas and feelings into words so that we can share them with others as well as make inferences about what others may be thinking and feeling. We can handle things not going our way because we have a better ability to share our frustrations, connect with others and get support. Our play expands as our ideas build on each other and when we are able to connect our plans with the play plans others introduce.
- Recognize how our behavior affects others’ thoughts and feelings, which in turn affects how we feel.
- Recognize that it’s normal for people to like and think different things.
- Recognize how others react to unexpected behaviors.
- Ask questions to show interest in people and get information about them. Initiate and maintain conversation topics (stay on topic, ask questions, introduce a topic that you think your friend might like).
- Take turns in activities and conversation. Recognize that social interaction goes back and forth and isn’t all one-way.
- Share the short version first, then check in with your friend to see if they want to hear the long version.
- Be aware of and control your tone of voice. For example, offer suggestions instead of commands or directions.
- Notice if others don’t respond or understand and adjust your communication.
- Connect your ideas to the group’s ideas.
- Make inferences about what someone means based on context.
- Reach out to a friend to share feelings and experiences.
- Tell a story about a difficult event to help make sense of what happened and reflect on past and future experiences.
The rewards of social learning continually build and reinforce each other. When we are tuned in and making more connections within ourselves and with others, our capacity to have fun and to make friends grows even stronger. To have fun and rewarding relationships, our ability to more deeply understand someone else's perspective needs to grow. Friendships where both people get to share and explore their interests together are the most fun!
- Distinguish between a big problem and a little problem.
- Stay flexible; accept and expect change. Adapt and be able to come up with a “plan B.”
- Share the agenda, compromise and take turns with ideas and leading.
- Recognize things don’t have to be perfect.
- Think about tradeoffs and accept compromise, for example: “What’s more important: to be right or to have friends?”
- Accept losing gracefully. Be a good sport.
- Filter your thoughts. Recognize when to keep some kinds of thoughts in your head.
- Recognize when it’s time to take a break. Identify what things you can do to make your body feel calm.
- Regulate and adjust your energy level to the group.
- Use self-talk to stay calm and stay positive.
- Recognize that sometimes it’s best to ignore a situation or remove one’s self
- Come up with multiple causes for why something might have happened.
- Identify the “big picture” or “big ideas” in a situation (rather than focusing on less-relevant detail).
- Identify an internal standard of behavior: “That’s okay for him, but that doesn’t work for me.”
- Articulate when a relationship makes you feel good about yourself or if it makes your feel uncomfortable and why.
- Greenspan S.I. & Wieder (1998). The Child with Special Needs. Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Wetherby, A.M., & Prizant, B. M. (1995). Facilitating language and communication in autism: Assessment and intervention guidelines. In D. Berkell (ed.), Autism: Identification, education, and treatment (pp. 107–133). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gernsbacher M.A., (2006). Toward a behavior of reciprocity. Journal of Developmental Processes, 1, 139–152.
Fogel, A. (1993). Developing through Relationships. U of Chicago Press.